Clive R. Neal
Summary of Activities/Interests
Professor Neal's petrologic research uses a technique of crystal stratigraphy to explore lunar (mare) basalt and impact melt evolution. Crystal stratigraphy involves using quantitative petrography (in the form of crystal size distributions or CSDs) to evaluate the size distributions of different phases. This can identify different crystal populations that can give information on the samples' petrogenetic history. The CSDs guide the analytical phase of the investigation to different populations. Individual crystals are then analyzed by electron microprobe for major and minor elements, and by Laser Ablation ICP-MS for trace elements. Zoned crystals contain a wealth of information regarding sample history that the crystal stratigraphy approach can unlock.
Lunar Science Professor Neal's lunar research consists of two major thrusts: 1) Lunar Petrology; and 2) Lunar Geophysics.
1) Lunar Petrology: Research in this area is examination of melt rocks, both natural basalts and impact melts. Current projects include investigation of the petrogenesis of Apollo 12 and Apollo 17 mare basalts as well as the Apollo 14 and Apollo 16 impact melts, both using the crystal stratigraphy approach. Melt inclusions are also being analyzed to explore the petrogenesis of the Apollo 12 basalts.
2) Lunar Geophysics Professor Neal is the Principal Investigator on a proposal to NASA to send two landers to the lunar surface, each carrying a sophisticated geophysical instrument package. The science rationale for this mission is that we know very little about the interior of the moon, despite five seismometers being deployed on the lunar surface by Apollo; the small footprint of the Apollo network meant our knowledge of the deep interior would be limited. Each lander on the "Lunette" mission will contain a broad band and short period seismometer, two heat flow probes, an electromagnetic sounding experiment, and a laser retroreflector. The proposed mission is an international collaboration involving the USA, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Austria, and Italy. The nominal mission will last four years.
Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) : LIPs represent vast outpourings of lava at an unprecedented rate that is not known at present. Models have been constructed to explain such magmatic events that include a surfacing plume head, an upper mantle origin, and origin through meteorid impact. Distinguishing among these different hypotheses requires careful investigation. My research uses fieldwork and scientific ocean drilling to investigate the following oceanic LIPs: Kerguelen Plateau, Ontong Java Plateau, and the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamounts. One of the most important aspects of LIP origin is understanding the exact timing of formation. Do they form in one big pulse or several smaller ones? How long did this magmatism continue? A new avenue of research is to examine syn-LIP sediments to identify the onset and cessation of volcanism. [Photos 5, 8]
Mantle Petrology: Understanding the composition of and processes occurring in the mantle allow a much better understanding of how magmas are generated and how the mantle has evolved over time. Examinations of peridotite xenoliths and mantle-derived megacrysts are the targets for this research. An integrated approach to investigating mantle petrology involves major and trace elements in conjunction with isotope determinations. [Photos 2, 12, 13]
B.Sc. (Honors) Geology - First Class, University of Leicester, United Kingdom, 1982.
Ph.D. in Mantle Geochemistry - University of Leeds, United Kingdom, 1986.
Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Tennessee, Knoxville - 1986-1990
Assistant Professor. University of Notre Dame. 1990-1996
Associate Professor. University of Notre Dame. 1996-2007
Professor. University of Notre Dame - 2007-Present
Simonetti A. and Neal C.R. (2010) In-situ chemical, U-Pb dating, and Hf isotope investigation of megacrystic zircons, Malaita (Solomon Islands): Evidence for multi-stage alkaline magmatic activity beneath the Ontong Java Plateau. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 295, 251-261.
Shearer C.K., Burger P.V., Neal C.R., Sharp Z., Spivak-Birndorf L., Borg L., Fernandes V.A., Papike J.J., Wadhwa M., Gaffney A., Shafer J., Geissman J., Atudorei N.-V., Herd C., Weiss B., King P.L., Crowther S.A., and Gilmour J.D. (2010) Non-basaltic asteroidal magmatism during the earliest stages of solar system evolution: A view from Antarctic achondrites Graves Nunatak 06128 and 06129. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 1172-1199.
Brandon A.D., Lapen T.J., Debaille V., Beard B.L., Rankenburg K., and Neal C.R. (2009) Re-evaluating 142Nd/144Nd in lunar mare basalts with implications for the early evolution and bulk Sm/Nd of the Moon. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73, 6421-6445.
Kinman W.S., Neal C.R., Davidson J.P., and Font L. (2009) The dynamics of Kerguelen Plateau magma evolution: New insights from major element, trace element, and Sr isotope microanalysis of plagioclase hosted in Elan Bank basalts. Chemical Geology 264, 247-265.
Petterson M.G., Magu R., Mason A., Mahoa H., Tolia D., Neal C.R., and Mahoney J.J. (2009) A first geological map of Makira, Solomon Islands: Stratigraphy, structure and tectonic implications. In: Pacific Minerals in the New Millenium - The Jackson Lum Volume. SOPAC Tech. Bull. 11, 145-161.
Neal C.R. (2009) The Moon 35 years after Apollo: What's left to be done? Invited review in Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, 69, 3-43 [doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2008.07.002].
Kramer G.Y., Jolliff B.L., and Neal C.R. (2008) Searching for high-alumina mare basalts using Clementine UVVIS and Lunar Prospector GRS data: Mare Fecunditatis and Mare Imbrium. Icarus 198, 7-18.
Shearer C.K., Burger P.V., Neal C.R., Sharp Z., Borg L.E., Spivak-Birndorf L., Wadhwa M., Papike J.J., Karner J.M., Gaffney A.M., Shafer J., Weiss B.P., Geissman J., and Fernades V.A. (2008) A unique glimpse into asteroidal melting processes in the early solar system from the Graves Nunatak 06128/06129 achondrites. Am. Mineral. 93, 1937-1940.
Neal C.R ., Coffin M.F., Arndt N.T., Ducan R.A., Eldholm O., Erba E., Farnetani C., Fitton J.G., Ingle S.P., Ohkouchi N., Rampino M.R., Reichow M.K., Self S., and Tatsumi Y. (2008) Investigating large igneous province formation and associated plaeoenvironmental events: A White Paper for scientific drilling. Scientific Drilling 6, 4-18.
Liu G.J., Zhang X.R., Talley J.W., Neal C.R., and Wang H. (2008) Effect of NOM on arsenic adsorption by TiO2 in simulated As(III)-contaminated raw waters. Water Res. 42, 2309-2319.
Liu G.J., Zhang X.R., McWilliams L., Talley J.W., and Neal C.R. (2008) Influence of Ionic Strength, Electrolyte Type, and NOM on As(V) Adsorption onto TiO2. J. Env. Sci. Health 43, 430-436.
Kramer G.Y., Jolliff B.L., and Neal C.R. (2008) Distinguishing HA Mare Basalts Using Clementine UVVIS and Lunar Prospector GRS Data: Mare Moscoviense and Mare Nectrais. J. Geophys. Res. 113, E01002, doi:10.1029/2006/E002860.
Jain J., Talley J.W., and Neal C.R. (2007) Stability of inorganic arsenic species in simulated raw waters with the presence of NOM. Water Sci. Technology: Water Supply 6, 175-182.
Silliman S.E., Boukari M., Crane P., Azonsi F., and Neal C.R. (2007) Observations on elemental concentrations of groundwater in Central Benin. J. Hydrology 335, 374-388.
Révillon S., Teagle D.A.H., Boulvais P., Shafer J., and Neal C.R. (2007) Geochemical fluxes related to alteration of a subaerially-exposed seamount: Nintoku seamount, ODP Leg 197, Site 1205. Geochem., Geophys., Geosystems 8, Q02014, doi:10.1029/2006GC001400.
Dalheimer S., Neal C.R., and Fein J.B. (2007) Potential siderophore mobilization of platinum-group elements in surface environments. Env. Sci. Tech. 41, 870-875.
Neal C.R . and Kramer G.Y. (2006) The petrogenesis of Apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts. Amer. Mineral. 91, 1521-1535.
Rankenburg K., Brandon A.D., and Neal C.R. (2006) Neodymium isotope evidence for a chondritic composition of the Moon. Science 312, 1369-1372.
(2006) Magma evolution revealed by anorthite-rich plagioclase cumulate xenoliths from the Ontong Java Plateau: Insights into LIP magma dynamics and melt evolution. J. Volc. Geotherm. Res. 154, 131-157.
Anand M., Taylor L.A., Floss C., Neal C.R., Terada K., and Tanikawa S. (2006) Petrology and Geochemistry of LAP 02 205: A New Unique Low-Ti Mare-Basalt Meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 246-264.
Chazey W.J. III and Neal C.R. (2005) The role of mineral-melt fractionation on the highly siderophile element abundances in Kerguelen Plateau basalts and a possible plume origin at the core-mantle boundary. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 4685-4701.
Shafer J., Neal C.R., Regelous M., and Gudding J. (2005) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of alkalic post-shield lavas from Nintoku Seamount, a 56 Ma Hawaiian volcano. Geochem., Geophys., Geosystems. Q05L09, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000875.